Demo Glossary

This glossary is a fragment of the big VLC Glossary that hosts more than 1,000 entries. It hosts only those terms that are required for the demo-units of this demo course.

Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  (Next)


Arabic, Modern Standard (ISO-Code: ARA)

The examples below illustrate the synthetic character of Standard Arabic. Furthermore, it is obvious that Arabic exhibits the VSO word order in main clauses:

الكتاب اررجل نا’عمون
الكتابين المر’أتو نمط
الكتاب الكبير اررجل يرى المر’أ.
الكتاب الكبير جيدا   ... عندما را’أت المر’أتو اررجلا
فيل كتاب اررجل يو’تي المر’أتى الكتابة.
ألا الكتاب




ChatGPT is a large language model developed by OpenAI based on the GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) architecture. It uses deep learning techniques to generate human-like responses to natural language input. ChatGPT is trained on massive amounts of text data, allowing it to understand and respond to a wide range of topics and questions. As a language model, ChatGPT can be used for a variety of tasks, such as text generation, translation, summarization, and question-answering. ChatGPT is a powerful tool for natural language processing and has the potential to be used in many applications, including chatbots, virtual assistants, and customer service automation.

(Generated by ChatGPT-3, 15 March 2023, post-edited by J. Handke)


Diphthongs, Centering/Ingliding

Diphthongs are defined as centering or ingliding if a movement of the tongue from a peripheral to a central position occurs.

Diphthongs, Closing/Upgliding

Diphthongs are defined as closing or upgliding if a movement of the tongue from a low or central to a high (closed) position occurs. There are two variants of closing/upgliding diphthongs:

  • front closing/upgliding (2nd element = high front vowel)
  • back closing/upgliding (2nd element = high back vowel)


German, Standard (ISO-Code: DEU)

The examples illustrate the synthetic fusional character of German. Furthermore, Standard German exhibits two word order patterns: SVO in main clauses and SOV in subordinate clauses:

das Buch Der Mann schläft.
die Bücher Die Frau schlief.
das große Buch Der Mann sieht die Frau.
das sehr große Buch   ... weil die Frau den Mann sieht.
in dem Buch Der Mann gibt der Frau das Buch.
auf dem Buch



Japanese (ISO-Code: JPN)

The examples below illustrate the strong agglutinating character of Japanese. Furthermore, it is obvious that Japanese exhibits a strict SOV order irrespective of the sentence type:

その本 その男の人は寝る。
その本 その男の人は寝た。
その大きな本 その男の人はその女の人を見る。
そのとても大きな本   その女の人が、その男の人を見る時。
その本の中に その男の人は、その女の人にその本を与える。



Linear Ordering - Parameter Settings for PDE

Specifier Specifier on left, head on right:
XP  (Spec) X'
e.g. [very] pretty, [some] authors
Adjunct Both options allowed:
(X'  X' YP) and (X'  YP X')
e.g. [black] carsstudents [from London]
Complement Head on left, complement on right:
X'  X (ZP)
e.g. books [of poems], Paul saw [his friend].

Heads are in boldface, modifiers appear between square brackets [ ].

Low Back Merger

In Canadian and many regional variants in Northeast America, the phonemes /o/ and /oh/ have merged, so that cot and caughtDon and dawnhock and hawkcollar and caller, are all homophones.

This 'cot-caught merger' is complete in Canada, the West, Western Pennsylvania and Eastern New England.


NL-Phonology: The Dumping Principle

If after the application of mapping some tones are still free, they will be linked to the last vowel to the right.

NL-Phonology: The Mapping Principle

The mapping principle associates vowels with tones in a 1-to-1 fashion from left to right until we run out of vowels or of tones.

Page:  1  2  (Next)